Mr D. L. Deshmukh.
Assistant Professor, V.P.’s College of Education Baramati
A convenient and valuable source of linguistic information is a standard dictionary. It is easy to use, and, if used intelligently, very informative. Essential to any study of words is the effective use of dictionary. Far from being a dull dry reference book, the dictionary is a vast storehouse of interesting information about an infinite number of useful word tools. It is endlessly intriguing when it is properly used, and it is invaluable to any vocabulary student. As you learn how to use dictionary properly, you will find your efforts bring a rich harvest of new ideas and words. The bilingual dictionary is useful when to have exact equivalence of a word in Malayalam. A dictionary contains important facts far beyond simple definitions and guides to pronunciation and spelling.
Organization of the Dictionary:
Unabridged dictionaries are comprehensive in their explanations and descriptions of words, containing thousands more entries than the more commonly used desk dictionary. Most bilingual dictionaries do not contain the detailed information that may find necessary for translation. Introductory material in front of the dictionary this explains the information the book has to offer. If some of it seems too scholarly for you to understand, read on and at least find out what it is mainly concerned with and what you can expect to find in its entries.
The table of abbreviations, which is most likely to be found inside the front cover of your dictionary. To save space, dictionaries necessarily use many abbreviations, and these are explained in the table. Most bilingual dictionaries do not have appropriate abbreviations in Malayalam translation of various entries. An appendix gives information about list of biographical and geographical names. Other information often found in the appendixes of a dictionary includes tables of interpretations of various specialized symbols like those connected with mathematics, chemistry, music, chess, medicine, and pharmacy; a dictionary of colleges and universities; a table of weights and measures; a dictionary of English given names, and so on. Most bilingual dictionaries lacks update terms from medical, business, computer and technical field. It also lacks separate quick reference table of countries, states, state capitals, area zip codes, presidents and more.
Entries arranged in the dictionary: (Agnes M, Webster’s new world college dictionary: new millennium fourth edition.)
The dictionary lists all main entries capital (include single word) in strict alphabetical order in addition, sets them in large bold fall type, extending slightly into the left Margin.
Two guidewords appear at the top of each page showing the alphabetical range of the entries on that page. The first main entry word and the last main entry word on a page serve as the Guide Words for that page. The dictionary follows strict alphabetical order for saint and it when they appear as part of proper names other than two names of canonized persons. The listing of canonized persons is in alphabetical order by their given names, which appear in bold space. The designation saint follows in lightface type either directly after the comma or at the beginning of a numbered sense within a proper name block. Augustine 2(-,) one. Saint early Christian church father… St. Au-Gus-tine (…) […] support in NE. flag…
· The main entry word:
The dictionary lists all main entries in strict alphabetical order and sets them in large boldface type, extending slightly in left margin. In respect to translation, it helps for finding correct word through alphabetical order. It includes single words hyphenated and unhyphenated compounds, proper names prefixes, suffixes, and abbreviations
.Some entries are alphabetized in special ways.
· Biographical entries:
The dictionary uses only the last name in arranging names in alphabetical order. If there are two or more persons with the same family names, this dictionary lists them in a single entry block in alphabetical order by first name. The dictionary does not include names in Parentheses in alphabetizing. Biographical and geographical names that look the same are in separate entry blocks. Given names, family names, names in mythology, names of biographical persons and places geographical names are entered separately from biographical entries.
The dictionary lists biographical entries under the name by which the people are best known. Nickname or birth name may be given else were in the entry block. Elling- ton (…) Duck (born Edward Kennedy Ellington). The entry typically includes birth and death dates, terms of office dates of reign, etc. When date is uncertain, a question is used. Anderson (…) … 3 Margins 1897? -1993 …
· The Geographical Entry:
Many geographical entries contain popular figures taken from official census reports or from estimates this dictionary rounds off figures to the nears. World cities with a large population or of historical note are entered. A Reference supplement – In the back of this dictionary contains many useful charts regarding nations of the world, us states. The dictionary also lists some ABBREVIATIONS as trademark or service mark. PX service mark Post Exchange.
Homographs are main entries that have same spelling.
· Alternative spellings & variant forms:
The dictionary lists alternative spellings in various forms, as main entries: that implies that both spellings occur equally or almost equally, often and that neither one is more correct or to be preferred.
ax1 or axe.
While translating any document it helps for adjusting appropriate word.
· Cross references:
some entries in the dictionary consist simply of a cross reference to another entry having the same meaning, with the cross reference shown in small capitals.
Curb roof 1. MANSARD ROOF 2. GAMBREL ROOF.
· Parts-of-Speech Labels:
Dictionary uses the labels for the parts of speech traditionally used to classify words in English grammar. If entry word has more than one Parts of speech, long dashes introduce each different part of speech in the entry block.
Square (….) n. [….]—vt… –… adj…–adv…
A better understanding of langue generally comes from knowing how words are related to other words in English and to words in other Indo European Languages. Dictionary helps how these words are related as fully as possible and takes the etymologies back to the Indo European Base where possible, either directly or cross- reference.
· Usage labels:
People use language in different ways depending on, for example, where they grow up, how old they are, depending on the situation in which that person uses the words or the purpose for which they are used. It helps for translation of exact word in respect to language.
· Idiomatic Phrases:
Translation of idiomatic phrase is very important for literal meaning. The dictionary has idiomatic phrases entries under the key word in the phrase. The key word is the word obviously being used in a way that does not agree with its usual or literal meaning. Webster’s new world college dictionary, new millennium fourth edition, Michael Agnes, Bilingual dictionaries are not just designed for the translation purpose but it has variety of characteristics. I.e. guide words, main entries, part-of- speech labels, inflected forms, etymology, definitions, usage labels & notes, field labels, biological names, idiomatic phrases, synonymy and guide to pronunciation.
Thus, dictionaries are designed to serve the needs of a particular segment. For example – people whose native language is not English but who want help in understanding and using English. Dictionaries for non-native English speakers are often written with simplified defining vocabulary, and they have to give special attention to common usages and to typical grammar patterns- information that a typical native speaker does not need.
- Agnes M, Webster’s new world college dictionary: new millennium fourth edition.
- “Curry, n.2”, The Oxford English Dictionary. Second ed. 1989. OED Online. Oxford University Press 10 November 2010. http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/50056122
- Fabricius, Johann Philip (1933 and 1972), Tamil and English Dictionary. Based on J.P. Fabricius Malabar-English Dictionary, 3rd and 4th Edition Revised and Enlarged by David Bexell. Evangelical Lutheran Mission Publishing House, Tranquebar; called Tranquebar Dictionary.
- “Oxford English Dictionary Online”, Oxford English Dictionary, http://dictionary.oed.com, retrieved 2010-10-10.