Asst.Prof in English
L.B.R.C. Engineering College Mylavaram, A.P, India
There is lot of demand and importance of English, in almost all the states of India, English is taught as a compulsory language and from the very first standard, and even then the outcome is unsatisfactory.
Why because? The simple reason is the native language reduces the interest of learning second (English) language communication.
In India every parent of rural India wishes their children to learn English language since school level, but they are unable to get splendid chances of good English communication. There are several reasons as following
- When a child enters in school at primary level.
- He is taught English language as a subject not a language.
- Stress remains on formation of alphabets not on speaking or listening.
- To enhance vocabulary they are forced to crème a long list of words.
- When these learners enters at secondary level they are competent enough in writing & understanding English language but this is cram based not on creativity
So my paper would expose students’ difficulty in learning English in their schooling. It focuses on a few methods to improve the students’ interest in learning a second language. It explains Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) method at School in India. It deals with the Task base approach and Content base approach including CLIL.
These methods were put forward by the teacher to students that are often repeated through the teacher consolidation and student participation.
ELT in Indian Schools:
First of all there is no definite policy of the government about teaching of English in government schools in India. In Andhra Pradesh, Social teachers are teaching English in schools. They do not have the indispensable qualification. Most of them have not cleared their English Paper at graduation level. They teach English in the first language of the student. Listening and speaking skills are totally ignored in the class-room. They themselves do not know how to speak in English. How can they do justice with the subject and students? The situation is even more difficult in primary schools.
Second Language Acquisition
Second language acquisition is learning a second language after a first language is already well- known.
There are many different things that factor into the decision about how to teach a person a second language, including the language spoken in the home, lot of opportunities to practice the second language, motivation of the learner and need of the second language.
Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) is an approach for learning content through in addition languages (foreign and secondary). It is an enlightening approach where some content learning (like a topic on globalization or a subject topic) is taught in an additional language. It is a single educational approach which involves very different models. And also it reduces the difficult grammatical rules and regulations.
Task base teaching English language
First, the teacher presents an thing of language in a clear context to get across its meaning. This could be done in a variety of ways: through a text, a situation build, a dialogue or a picture etc……the student was participated these task and completed within the time for example the teacher give a role play between the two learner(L1&L2).it includes pre task,taskplanning, analysis, pracrice.it enables the student practical knowledge.
Content Based Teaching English Language
In recent days Content-based teaching has become more and more popular as a resource of developing linguistic ability. It has strong connections to project work, task-based learning and a holistic approach language instruction and has become particularly fashionable within the state school secondary (11 – 16 years old) education sector. Here some of the methods follow…….
Countryside students are very much affected by this ELT system. There is a lot of difference between urban and rural students. Urban students somehow manage to learn, practice and use English quite well in the situation in which the language is used in India in spite of this deconstructing English language teaching. They are third generation learner having spot and co- operation from parents, environment and atmosphere. But rural students are first generation learner who takes English as further language and throughout life not able to deal with it in spite of their best efforts. However they might be able to write as per requirement but speaking remains out of their range. They learn without knowing what they are learning. Linguistic research says this is why a feeling of backwardness itself embosses among these learners. Most students find it difficult to understand the substance of the prescribed literary selection. The typical method of teaching consists of the teachers reading of the text in the small portion, explaining its meaning and allusions and figure of speech in simplified English or in regional language and an occasional discussion of grammar points with a question or throw in. The teaching is rarely student centered and most students have neither the chance nor the motivation to actively participate. English is taught as an academic subject ¬ as a medium or mode of active, productive communicational intellectualization. .
Influence of Mother Tongue:
Mother tongue influence can also be seen in the students with rural area background because they were not given proper pronunciation drill from the primary level. So what ever they speak, dialect effect can be observed very easily. For e.g. School-/sku:l/ Book /bu:k/ Student
/setu:dent/ etc. At tertiary level it’s impossible to correct these learners content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) has become the house term describing both learning through the medium of a foreign language and learning. a foreign language by studying a content-based subject. In ELT, forms of CLIL have previously been known as ‘content based instruction’, ‘English across the world’ and ‘bilingual education’. Content and language integrated learning is a special method. It depends upon the interest of the students in particular habits and hobbies, so we teach them to students their habits and hobbies in English language. Then, the students paying concentration towards the learning English language communication. For example, we know that the people of Indian sub-continent are cricket crazy. Then why not teach English through Cricket? Let them learn English through their passionate topic. We know most people in India are crazy about movies – even in villagers. Why not make them learn English through movies?
Project work is not a new methodology. Its benefits have been widely recognized for many years in the teaching of subjects like science, geography, and history. So some teachers have been doing project work in their language lessons for a long time.
A project is an extended task which usually integrates language skills work through a number of activities. These activities involve working towards an agreed goal and may include planning, the gathering of information through reading, listening, interviewing, etc., discussion and processing of the information, problem solving, and oral or written reporting, and display. Project-based learning has been promoted within ELT for a number of reasons. Learners’ use of language as they negotiate plans, analyze, and discuss information and ideas is determined by genuine communicative needs. At the school level, project work encourages imagination and creativity, self-discipline and responsibility, collaboration, research and study skills, and cross- curricular work through utilization of knowledge gained in other subjects
Modernization of Language with Innovative Skills method
To discriminate CLIL from ELT we could say that ELT focuses on learning the language, whereas CLIL focuses on learning through English.
Project work creates connections between the foreign language and the learner’s own world. It encourages the use of a wide range of communicative skills, enables learners to develop other fields of knowledge, and provides opportunities for them to write about the things that are important in their own lives. It is widely recognized that one of the most important benefits of learning a foreign language is the opportunity to learn about other cultures. However, it is important, particularly with an international language like English, that this is not a one-way flow.
The purpose of learning a foreign language is to make communication between two cultures possible. English, as an international language, should not be just for talking about the ways of the English speaking world. It should also be a means of telling the world about your own culture. Project work helps to create this approach.
FVR – Free Voluntary Reading method
It is already knowing method, which it encourage the students learning effectively.FVR is simply allowing students to read materials of their own choosing without the pressure of rewards, book reports or testing. FVR is the best way for the student to improve their language skills (L1 or L2) on their own. The pioneer of FVR and its research is Stephen D. Krashen. Practicing FVR improves “reading competence, our vocabulary, and our ability to handle complex grammatical constructions”.
Total Physical Response (TPR) method
One of the best ways in learning second language communication. In the 1960’s, James Asher first offered” (Richard-Amato) TPR. TPR “involves giving commands to which students react.” (Richard-Amato) TPR is great for all ages and especially beginners as it allows them to learn the L2, while giving them time to maximize the potential of their silent period. Commands are 1st
given by the teacher and then it’s possible to let students give the commands. “The lessons themselves are not focused on grammar; instead they are focused on meaning”. (Richard-Amato) TPR answers the question of what to do with absolute beginners. Once the teacher has confirmed the meaning of the sounds she is saying, students recognize those sounds and play along.
Students from rural, they were habituated from story type lessons and myths, small tales etc… so the lesson plan that includes Story-Telling activities, allows students to be creative and fosters the natural approach to learning a second language. Story-telling activities “enable the students to participate in the language before actually being proficient in it, just as children do when being read to in their first language”. (Richard-Amato p.215) There are many kinds of storytelling activities such as the classic game Mad-Libs or the grammar type of stories. Then figures of speech can be added including the story for example movies in English language especially dramatic portions, but not in poetic dramas.
Teaching with Music method
Each and everybody prefer listening to music whether it is understood or not. At the same student (rural or urban) passionate about listening music .so we should utilize this opportunity to explain the English lessons adding with the music. At beginning levels, music can be used to teach basic vocabulary. Colors, body parts, simple actions (and phrases), clothes and names of people are only a few of the concepts that can be taught through music”. (Richard-Amato p.202) Teachers can utilize a tape or CD player, CD-ROM, DVD, or if they are musically inclined – bring in a guitar. “The teacher doesn’t have to be talented in music to make it a memorable experience”
- Content and language integrated learning by, Do Coyle, paperback publications 2005
- Uncovering CLIL by Peeter Mehisto, Maria-Jesus Frigols and David Marsh MacMillan publications,2008
- Challenging but enjoyable English language teaching in rural areas a case study of BPS women university, Khanpur Kalan, Haryana, October 2011, ISSN 2230-9136
- How to Teach Your Child a Second Language by Sarah Jackson, eHow contributor http://www.ehow.com/how_4524046_teach-baby-second-lanuage.html#ixzz25BdLVnZQ
- 5) What is CLIL? | Onestopenglish www.onestopenglish.com/clil/what-is-clil
- Learning English with Bobby 1: CLIL Method Pupil’s Book [Paperback] Tuula Storm (Author), Rauli Storm (Editor)
8) CLIL – Content and Language Integrated Learning – Goethe-Institute www.goethe.de/ges/spa/dos/ifs/enindex.htmCLIL – Content and Language Integrated
- 9) European Commission – Content and language integrated learning ec.europa.eu/…/content-and-language-integrated-learning_en.htm